Over the past four decades, the relationship between exercise and immunity has been portrayed as something as a double-edged sword: although regular exercise boosts your immunity in the longer term, in the hours immediately after exercise, immunity takes a hit – which can increase your risk of illness and infection, especially colds, coughs and sore throats.
However, new research published by UK scientists appears to completely overturn the ‘post-exercise immune dip’ myth (Frontiers in Immunology, 2018; 9 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00648). The original research on post-exercise immunity dated back to the 1980s, and focused on events such as the Los Angeles Marathon, asking competitors if they had symptoms of infections in the days and weeks after their race. Because many of these athletes did, scientists concluded that endurance training or competition might – in the shorter term – increase infection risk by temporarily suppressing the immune system.
The good news for endurance athletes is that a reinterpretation of the previous findings from the field of immunology and exercise suggests that far from dampening immunity immediately after training/competition, exercise may actually boost immunity. This is because in the years since the early research, new discoveries about the way immune cells function in the body show that scientists were wrong to conclude immunity was harmed following exercise.
After exercise, some immune cells in the bloodstream decrease substantially — sometimes falling to levels lower than before exercise started, and this can last for several hours. Many scientists previously interpreted this fall in immune cells after exercise to be immune suppression. However strong evidence suggests that this does not mean that cells have been ‘lost’ or ‘destroyed’, but rather that they move to other sites in the body that are more likely to become infected, such as the lungs.
How do we know that these immune cells are not destroyed by exercise? The latest evidence provides three key reasons:
Following exercise, immune cells return to normal levels within a few hours – far too quick for them be ‘replaced’ with new cells.
Recent studies in humans have shown that instead, these immune cells have the ability to leave the bloodstream and travel to other sites in the body.
Studies on laboratory animals have shown that when immune cells are labelled and tracked, these labelled cells accumulate elsewhere in the body following exercise – almost certainly because they go there to ‘look’ for and destroy infections.
There are other clues as to why low numbers of immune cells in the bloodstream in the hours after exercise are not a sign of immune-suppression, but instead a sign that these cells (primed by exercise), are working in other parts of the body. For example, researchers have discovered that exercise can improve your immune response to a flu jab – ie your immune system is boosted after exercise.
So why I hear you ask have some studies shown an increased likelihood of illness and infection after prolonged and strenuous exercise such as running a marathon? The answer might be much more mundane; we know that attending any event where there is a large gathering of people, increases the risk of contracting an infection. We also know that public transport, particularly airline travel over long distances, where sleep is disrupted, may also increase your infection risk. On top of these factors, there is the impact of inadequate diet, getting cold and wet, and psychological stress, all of which have been linked to a greater chance of developing infections.
Boosting your immunity
Given the above, what can you do to maximise your immunity – not just after exercise but at all time? This is a topic I’ve covered at length in Peak Performance. The good news is that there ARE plenty of nutritional and other strategies that can keep you well, even when the pressure is on. You can read all about them in the article below!
Andrew Hamilton explores the critical importance of immunity for athletes, and how you can stay well, even when the pressure is on Given that even a mild bout of illness can result in a serious setback for fitness, what can athletes do to protect themselves? Andrew Hamilton looks at some intriguing new research from the... MORE
Can the use of key vitamins and minerals provide antiviral support against respiratory viruses such as COVID-19? Andrew Hamilton looks at what the science says, and provides a number of recommendations for athletes (and anyone else) seeking to stay well in these uncertain times MORE
In part 1 of this article, we looked at the biology and epidemiology of novel coronavirus, and explained why its virulence presents such a challenge for all of us. In part 2 we look ways of minimising the chance of becoming infected by using physical barriers MORE
Coronavirus is spreading to every corner of the globe, and is almost certainly going to have a huge impact on the way we live our lives, including the way we participate in sport, exercise and leisure. In the first part of a three-part article, we take an in-depth look at the characteristics of coronavirus and the challenges it poses to all of us MORE